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Figure The Options Bar with different options to create a wall Type Selector The Type Selector drop-down list is located in the Properties palette of the currently invoked tool. You can also subscribe to our YouTube channel www. The contents of the book are arranged in PowerPoint slides that can be used by the faculty for their lectures. Project Browser The Project Browser is located below the ribbon. Model Category : Consists of various building elements used in creating a building.
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Scrum Developer Training Course Outline This 2-day Scrum Developer course will enable delegates to gain knowledge on how to enhance their project management skills using Scrum. After completing the Scrum course, delegates will be able to conduct Agile testing using Scrum development skills. The exam will be sat on the second and final day of the course.
This Scrum Developer training course is open to everyone, but it is essential that delegates have a basic understanding of Scrum principles. This Scrum training course is highly targeted towards those who want to develop their project management skills using the Scrum framework.
Software Engineers and Infrastructure developers commonly take this course. Scrum Developer Training Course Overview This 2-day Scrum Developer training course is aimed at those who wish to develop their project management skills using a Scrum framework.
It will help delegates to produce functional software and conduct Agile product testing so that they can improve performance in accordance with Scrum framework. This course content is expansive, in-depth, and conveniently condensed into a 2- day course. The following is included with this training course:. Managing Agile Projects with Scrum Course Outline This is a one-day intensive course that will explore the following sections:.
Who should attend this Scrum Training Course? This course is highly recommended for:. There are no formal prerequisites, however, delegates will strive if they possess knowledge of the Agile approach, Scrum, and experience of working within a project team. This course will include the materials to be able to gain knowledge on how to identify the difference of using Agile in traditional projects and Agile projects.
Prospective delegates should be those who have had experience of working within an Agile aligned project and have experience and knowledge of the Scrum framework. Agile is a methodology that centers on continual iterative feedback, at regular intervals, to allow for frequent refinement of a project.
Thus, meaning that it deflects from the traditional project management methodologies of following a rigid plan and instead permits customer collaboration and is welcome to change. Agile is one of many forms of Project Management Approach, other more traditional methodologies are ones such as Waterfall, Lightweight, Spiral, Prototyping etc. Agile is an umbrella term that encompasses many software frameworks that are in accordance with the Agile Manifesto.
What’s included in this Scrum Training Course? This training course includes the following:. Therefore, the following topics will be covered during this training course:. In this Scrum for Teams training course, there are no formal prerequisites.
However, a basic understanding of Scrum and Agile Framework will give more benefit to delegates. However, it is more beneficial for:.
Scrum for Teams Course Overview Scrum is a commonly used framework, which allows individuals to find and solve the problems to deliver the highest value product.
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This training course will teach how to achieve these goals and will ensure individuals grow as competent Scrum Team members within an organisation. The Scrum Team comprises over three to nine persons, who share different responsibilities and tasks. An excellent communication level is required between the Scrum Team members to assure that they are concentrated on the same purpose while keeping mutual respect during the process. Attending this training can assist you gain comprehensive knowledge of Scrum for Teams, which will help you to emerge as Project Managers, Analysts, Designers, Stakeholders, etc.
This 1-day Scrum for Teams training comes under Scrum Training that will help you to become familiar with the key features of Scrum and Scrum framework. This training provides delegates with an in-depth understanding of the various roles and responsibilities of a Scrum team.
Delegates will get to know how to handle difficult people and situations. This course will be taught by our expert trainers who have years of experience in teaching such courses. At the end of this training, delegates will attain knowledge about separate roles and responsibilities in Scrum. They will be able to manage the sprint backlog effectively and efficiently. Agile and Scrum Awareness Course Outline This one-day introductory course shall focus on the following learning objectives:.
This course is highly recommended for those with no previous knowledge of Agile or those considering a move into an Agile aligned project. This course shall focus on how the Scrum framework can work with the Agile methodology and the specific aspects on Scrum. Furthermore, differences and similarities between the methodology and the framework shall be assessed. As this is an introductory course, no prior knowledge of Agile or Scrum is assumed for attendance on this course.
Agile is a methodology that centres on continual iterative feedback, at regular intervals, to allow for frequent refinement of a project. This training course includes:. Scrum Overview Course Outline This training course will explore the following areas:. Scrum Overview is suitable for anybody wishing to gain an understanding of Scrum. This could be those who will be working actively in a Scrum team or senior managers wishing to learn how Scrum could benefit their organisation.
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When using lumped species, it is recommended that certain actions be taken to reduce the complexity of the simulation. Doing this check for all primitive species will reduce the number of transport equations solved by the simulator, and save significant time on the simulation.
This chapter provides an overview of how to specify combustion the reaction of fuel vapor and oxygen using PyroSim. The former refers to the reaction of fuel vapor and oxygen; the latter the generation of fuel vapor at a solid or liquid surface. In an FDS fire simulation, there is only one gaseous fuel that acts as a surrogate for all the potential fuel sources.
A more complex approach is to define a material with a pyrolysis reaction. The fuel composition is entered on the Fuel tab. Alternately, the user can select the fuel from a predefined species list that is given in the FDS User Guide, Table PyroSim supports the custom smoke features available in FDS.
To create custom smoke, first define an species with the desired mass extinction coefficient. This “smoke” species can then be injected into the domain like any other species. Finally, if the Results should track this species as smoke, go to the Analysis menu, select Simulation Parameters.
Note that in addition to specifying the mass fraction of a species, the mass fraction of any mixture fraction species can also be selected for smoke display, including the mass fraction of oxygen, water vapor, and the other species specified in the gas-phase reaction. PyroSim supports three types of particles: massless tracers, liquid droplets, and solid particles. To create a new particle:. Evaporating liquid droplets can be used with sprinkler spray models and nozzles to customize the spray.
They can also be used in particle clouds and surface types that support particle injection. To specify a liquid droplet, you must specify a species.
This can be one of the predefined species recognized in Table If the species is not predefined, it is important to specify the liquid properties of the species. Drage refers to the drag force the particle exerts on the flow around it, see section ” Liquid particles can be injected into the domain as evaporating fuel vapor that will burn according to the combustion model specified in the active reaction.
PyroSim provides basic support for specifying solid particles. A solid particle must reference a surface, from which it derives its thermophysical and geometric parameters. A solid particle can be used to model various heat transfer, drag, and vegetation applications. Most of the parameters unique to solid particles must be defined on the Advanced Panel, see Chapter Massless tracer particles can be used to track air flow within a simulation.
They can also be used in particle clouds. By default, PyroSim provides a black, massless tracer particle called Tracer. To use a custom tracer particle in your simulation, you can modify the parameters of this default particle to suit your needs, or you can create a new particle. Normally, the insertion of particles into the domain is controlled by the surface or object emitting them, such as by a fan or supply surface or a particle cloud. Alternatively, the insertion of particles can be controlled by a device or other control logic.
For more information on controls, see Chapter There are two global options relating to particles in the Simulation Parameters dialog.
The first option, Droplets Disappear at Floor , can be used to prevent droplets from gathering on the floor of the simulation area. The default value for this option is ON. The second option, Max Particles per Mesh , can be used to set an upper limit on the number of particles allowed in any simulation mesh. Particle Clouds provide a way to insert particles into the simulation either in a box-shaped region or at a specific point.
Particles can either exist at the start of the FDS simulation or can be inserted periodically. To create a particle cloud, on the Model menu, click either New Particle Cloud. This will show the particle cloud dialog as in Figure The geometry properties, including the size and location of the volume or the point location can be specified on the Geometry tab.
Press OK to create the new particle cloud. It will appear as a translucent box or a point in the 3D and 2D Views. Devices are used to record quantities in the model or to represent more complex sensors, such as smoke detectors, sprinklers, and thermocouples.
Devices can be moved, copied, rotated, and scaled using the tools described in Chapter By copying a single device along a line and then copying the line in the normal direction, it is possible to quickly define an array of devices. When a device is defined, a trigger value setpoint can be created that can be used to activate other objects.
This is discussed more in Chapter In addition, the output of a device can be frozen at its current value when another control activates.
This can be used to create more complex logic, such as holding the heat release rate of a fire at its current value when a sprinkler activates. An aspiration detection system groups together a series of soot measurement devices. An aspiration system consists of a sampling pipe network that draws air from a series of locations to a central point where an obscuration measurement is made. To define such a system in FDS, you must provide the sampling locations, sampling flow rates, the transport time from each sampling location, and if an alarm output is desired, the overall obscuration setpoint.
Supply the following information for the aspiration detection system, Figure Simple gas phase and solid phase devices can be used to measure quantities in the gas or solid phase.
To create a thermocouple, on the Devices menu, click New Thermocouple. The output of the thermocouple is the temperature of the thermocouple itself, which is usually close to the gas temperature, but not always, since radiation is included in the calculation of thermocouple temperature. The flow measurement device can be used to measure a flow quantity through an area. The heat release rate device measures the heat release rate within a volume.
There is often the need to estimate the location of the interface between the hot, smoke-laden upper layer and the cooler lower layer in a burning compartment.
Relatively simple fire models, often referred to as two-zone models, compute this quantity directly, along with the average temperature of the upper and lower layers. In a computational fluid dynamics CFD model like FDS, there are not two distinct zones, but rather a continuous profile of temperature. FDS uses an algorithm based on integration along a line to estimate the layer height and the average upper and lower layer temperatures. A beam detector measures the total obscuration between points.
A heat detector measures the temperature at a location using a Response Time Index model. To define a heat detector device, on the Devices menu, click New Heat Detector.
A smoke detector measures obscuration at a point with two characteristic fill-in or “lag” times. To define a smoke detector, on the Devices menu, click New Smoke Detector. Nozzles are very much like sprinklers, only they do not activate based on the standard RTI model. They can be set to activate by custom control logic. Objects can be set to activate or deactivate during the simulation using activation events.
Activation events are the control logic system in FDS and can be set on each geometric simulation object e. PyroSim supports activation events based on time and input devices. Some uses of activation events include:. After selecting an input type and an action, a pattern in sentence form for describing the control logic will appear in the dialog.
Some key words and numbers will be drawn in blue and underlined. Any blue text can be clicked to modify the behavior of the specific control. Figure shows the selector popup for objects. Objects are selected by name. Activation controls are stored separately from specific geometric objects. This makes it possible to bind an object to a control after it has been created. Figure shows the activation control in the object properties dialog for a hole. Once a control has been bound to an object or objects any objects linked to that control will show a text description of the control in their properties editor.
This text will be shown in blue and underlined and can be clicked to edit the activation control. Changes made to the activation control will impact all referencing objects. To create or remove an object at a specific time, select Time for the Input Type in the Activation Controls dialog.
When using time as the input, objects can be created at a specific time, removed at a specific time, or be created and removed periodically throughout the simulation. When performing multiple timed events, the creation and removal and times at which they occur are specified in the table at the bottom of the dialog.
The create and remove events should alternate as time increases. To create or remove some objects based on a device in the model, the device must first have a setpoint enabled.
Once the desired devices have been given a setpoint, they can be used as inputs to the control logic expression. If more than one detector is to be used to activate the objects, the descriptive sentence can be used to decide if the objects should trigger when any, all, or a certain number of the devices activate.
A duct is required for any HVAC system. Note that an HVAC Fan is a class of object, and a single fan definition can be used by any number of ducts. A given filter can limit the flow of any number of valid species defined in the model. Note that an HVAC Filter is a class of object, and a single filter definition can be referenced by any number of nodes.
Note that an HVAC Aircoil is a class of object, and a single aircoil definition can be used by any number of ducts. See Section 8. In this chapter we describe the simulation output options available in PyroSim.
Each of these options is located in the Output menu. Solid profiles measure quantities e. This output file contains the data necessary to create an animated 2D chart of the quantity as it extends into the object over time. PyroSim does not currently support displaying this output file. To generate solid profile output, on the Output menu, click Solid Profiles.
This data can then be animated and displayed using the 3D Results Figure To generate animated slice planes, either draw them using the drawing tools as described in Section 9. This data can then be animated and displayed using the 3D Results in several different ways, including volumetric renderings, plotting 2D slices through the data, plotting points, or creating isosurfaces, all in the 3D Results application.
Figure shows a volumetric rendering. To generate animated 3D slices, either draw them using the drawing tools as described in Section 9. Boundary quantities provide a way to visualize output quantities e. This data can be animated and visualized in the 3D Results Figure Since the data applies to all surfaces in the simulation, no geometric data needs to be specified.
To generate boundary quantity data, on the Output menu, click Boundary Quantities. In the Animated Boundary Quantities dialog, you can select each quantity you would like to be available for visualization.
Isosurfaces are used to plot the three dimensional contour of gas phase quantities. To generate isosurface data, on the Output menu, click Isosurfaces , In the Animated Isosurfaces dialog, you can select each quantity you would like to be available for visualization.
Then you must enter values at which to display that quantity in the Contour Values column. If you enter more than one contour value, each value must be separated by the semi-colon character ;. Once you have finished typing the value, press enter. Plot3D is a standard file format and, like 3D slices, can be used to display 2D contours, vector plots, and isosurfaces in a volumetric region the 3D Results Figure Each Q file contains data for up to five quantities.
Simulations with multiple meshes have XYZ and Q files for each mesh. The 3D Results will automatically stitch the individual Q files together to animate the results. To quickly select the quantities useful in Pathfinder, including the FED calculation, click the Reset button and click Pathfinder Quantities. Statistics output is an extension of the devices system.
You can insert a statistics gathering device and it will output data about the minimum, maximum, and average value of a particular quantity in one or more mesh. This data can then be viewed in a 2D chart using PyroSim Figure To generate statistics data for some region, on the Output menu, click Statistics.
Once a quantity is selected, some combination of the following options is available depending on whether the quantity is gas or solid-phase and what units are output by the quantity:. This includes setting up simulation parameters, executing single- and multi-threaded simulations, running a remote cluster simulation, and resuming previously stopped simulations.
Before running a simulation, FDS simulation parameters should be adjusted to fit the problem. This can include parameters such as simulation time, output quantities, environmental parameters, conversion of angled geometry to blocks, and miscellaneous simulator values.
To edit the simulation parameters, on the Analysis menu, select Simulation Parameters. This shows the simulation parameters dialog. The parameters are split into several categories, with each category on another tab of the dialog. All time-related values can be entered on the Time tab as shown in Figure The Environment tab enables various ambient environmental properties to be set as shown in Figure A unique aspect of this tab is the specification feature for gravity.
Gravity, in each of the X, Y, and Z directions, can be defined as a ramped function. This allows users to model complex behavior of gravity in tunnel or space applications where spatial or temporal variations in direction may change the magnitude vector. Each ramp can be set to vary as a function of either the position along the X direction, or time. While the Environment tab provides control over ambient environmental conditions, different temperatures, pressures, and mass fractions of species can be specified in various sub-regions of the model by using Init Regions.
This opens the Initial Region dialog as shown in Figure Specify the desired temperature, pressure, or mass fraction of species to override in the region on the General tab and enter the volume parameters on the Geometry tab.
Press OK to create the Init Region. Wind parameters can be specified by checking Configure Wind and then clicking the Edit button. This will open the Wind dialog as shown in Figure The Wind Profile tab provides control over how the wind speed and temperature develops as a function of the elevation. The Custom Profile parameters provide fine-grained control over the initial wind speed, direction, and velocity and temperature as a function of elevation.
The Speed Change over Time tab allows control over the wind velocity as a function of time. While the wind profile determines the base speed at various locations and elevations in the model, the speed change over time parameters provide multipliers that are applied to these values to vary them over time. The Natural Wind tab provides the ability to allow wind to develop naturally by specifying pressure drops over distance.
This may be useful for modeling transit tunnels. The Simulator tab provides control over the simulator used in FDS. The Radiation tab provides control over radiation parameters used in FDS. PyroSim allows obstructions and holes to be drawn that are not aligned with the solution mesh needed by FDS Figure PyroSim will either do this automatically when the FDS input file is generated, or this can be done manually for individual objects by right-clicking the object and selecting Convert to Blocks.
The Angled Geometry tab of the simulation parameters dialog provides default parameters that control conversion of obstructions and holes into blocks for the FDS input file as shown in Figure As of FDS version 6. OpenMP will automatically be used to utilize multiple processing cores, if available, during the simulation procedure. These settings are applied to the execution context created by PyroSim and do not alter system environment variables.
Once you have created a fire model, you can run the simulation from within PyroSim. FDS actions can be accessed from either the Analysis menu or the main toolbar, as shown in Figure PyroSim will save a copy of the current PyroSim file into this directory and create the following files:. The file preferences control whether the optional files are written, see Section 2.
The input files will automatically be named after the PyroSim file. With the default preferences, for the “switchgear” example, the files would be switchgear.
All result files from FDS will also be stored in this directory. This dialog, which shows FDS progress and messages, can be minimized and you can continue using PyroSim and even run additional simulations while a simulation is running.
When running a simulation with multiple MPI processes, all of the computation within each of the meshes can take place independently. For a detailed list of suggestions and information about running FDS in parallel, please consult section 6.
This has similar restrictions to running a parallel simulation, in that each grid is run in a separate process. The cluster may be composed of several computers, or nodes, and each node may have any number of processors. All nodes in the cluster can be entered in the table, along with the number of processes to launch on each node. All input and output files will be stored in the same directory as the specified FDS file. If an FDS simulation has been gracefully stopped by pressing the Stop button in the simulation dialog, it can later be resumed.
To do so, on the Analysis menu, click Resume Simulation. When FDS detects this flag it will automatically attempt to reload the previous execution state from the hard disk and resume where it left off. If FDS is unable to load the previous execution state, it will exit with an error. This file contains information about the scene geometry, including obstructions, vents, meshes, and other CAD data before they are converted to blocks.
This allows the Results to show a detailed, animated view of the model along with FDS results. Each object in this file is linked with the corresponding FDS blocks in the input file. In order to make this work correctly, however, PyroSim must perform some additional processing on the geometry, including the following:. These objects will not appear in the PyroSim Geometry file and will prevent the geometry file from containing activation logic. This message indicates that the PyroGeom file will no longer accurately represent FDS objects as they are activated and deactivated.
Instead, the PyroGeom objects will always be visible, and all obstructions have all holes subtracted from them in this view but not in the FDS input file. Objects will no longer show and hide as they would before. This can be accomplished by cutting the text of these records and pasting them into the 2D or 3D model view. It allows the user to view the FDS model along with results in 3D. For Pathfinder users, it also allows the user to combine evacuation results in the same window.
Alternately, you can click on the Analysis toolbar to launch the most recent results. You may also run the Results at any time by going to the Analysis menu and selecting Run Results. This will prompt you to choose a Results file. The user can view animated smoke, slices, Plot3D, and various other output quantities.
You may run Smokeview at any time by going to the Analysis menu and selecting Run Smokeview. This will prompt you to choose a Smokeview file to open. Time history results are saved for heat detectors, thermocouples, and other fire output. This will show a plot of thermal results. Device and control results may also be viewed by by clicking the down-arrow and selecting the desired plot. Not all results are supported for viewing in PyroSim. A typical heat detector plot is shown in Figure The user can export the image to a file.
Press OK to create the archive. The archive will be stored in the directory of the current PyroSim file. Once results have been archived, they can be later restored. This will show the Restore Archived Results dialog as shown in Figure Libraries of material, or other model data, can reduce errors and speed the creation of new models.
The user can import data from the library into a new model. This section describes how to manage PyroSim libraries. You can create and manage your own libraries for data that you commonly use. A library is a single file that can contain several categories of objects, such as Materials, Gas-phase Reactions, and Surfaces. After you have saved your library, you can load it into a new model and copy data from the library to your model. PyroSim includes a library of reaction and material data that has been gathered from the verification analyses provided with FDS.
Each of these reactions and materials has a reference in the Description that documents the source of the data. This library is presently quite limited, and should be used as a starting point and not some kind of “standard” library.
It is your responsibility to verify that this data is correct and applicable to your simulation. First, a caution. Version 4 of FDS provided a database that included several common materials and reactions. In version 5, the FDS developers made a conscious choice to remove material and reaction data. Many of the materials in FDS 4 were simply examples, and they were worried that users were applying them without using their own test or lab data as validation.
In this section, we describe how to import the FDS 4 database, however, it is your responsibility to verify that this data is correct and applicable to your simulation.
PyroSim tries to support FDS completely, but there are some more obscure features that might not be found in the PyroSim user interface. For these items, PyroSim provides additional mechanisms to allow these features through the Additional Records section of the Record View and the Advanced tab of some dialogs.
There are times when PyroSim does not support an entire record. In this case, the record can be entered into the Additional Records Section of the Record View as shown in Figure Because PyroSim performs no validation on text in this view, it is up to the user to ensure that the statements are well-formed FDS statements and that they do not conflict with any records generated by PyroSim.
In addition, none of the records written in this section can be referenced by other PyroSim objects. For instance, if a SURF record is entered in this section, it cannot be referenced by an obstruction in the PyroSim user interface. The only way to do so would be to write the obstruction in the Additional Records Section as well.
Sometimes PyroSim may support a record but may not support it completely. For Surfaces, Materials, Reactions, and Particles, there is an Advanced tab in the properties dialog where these additional fields may be entered, as shown in Figure When entering additional fields, you must specify the field name and the field value.
As in the Additional Records Section , PyroSim will write these fields to the file exactly as entered in the table, so care must be taken by the user to make sure they are correct.
PyroSim attempts to use a system of dependencies to determine whether or not a PyroSim object needs to be written out to the input file.
Occasionally, this can lead to problems, especially when the Additional Records section is in use. For some objects, this default behavior can be modified by specifying that PyroSim always write the object to the input file, via the Always Write FDS Record checkbox in the Advanced tab.
With the License dialog open, as shown in Figure , Step 1 is to click the Online button under the ‘License File’ option. Step 2 is to paste the activation key that you received from Thunderhead and click OK. This is similar to the Online activation, except that you will click the Local button instead of “Online” and find the license file that was emailed to you from Thunderhead on your computer.
This is often in Docwnloads where you saved it from the email you received. The floating license server provides an administration web service that can assist with diagnosing many floating license problems.
If the license server is installed on the local machine, the license administration server can be accessed at the following web address:. If the license server is installed on a remote machine, replace “localhost” with the name of the remote machine i. Once you have opened the Reprise License Server Administration page, you can use the Status commands to attempt to debug the license server problem yourself, or you can send a diagnostic report to support thunderheadeng.
To generate a diagnostic report:. PyroSim and newer require and updated version of the Thunderhead License Manager. You can download an updated license manager from the PyroSim download page:.
The license manager is often not installed on the same computer where PyroSim is running and instead installed on a shared server. Please review the Floating License Manager Installation guide for details on the install process. In most cases, the newer version of the floating license manager will replace the previous version, the LIC files will be retained throughout the update process, and PyroSim will authorize against the updated server with no additional work.
If you experience trouble registering PyroSim, please contact support thunderheadeng. PyroSim utilizes many advanced graphics card features in order to provide accelerated display of models in three dimensions. This will disable the image caching and force PyroSim to always re-render the model. This should correct any display problems at the expense of speed.
You can also turn off graphics acceleration by starting PyroSim in Safe Mode. That will help us improve the faster version to work on more computers. When running large models, it is possible that an out of memory error will be encountered.
If this occurs, you can increase the default Java heap size. To specify the memory, you can either run from a command line or change the Start Menu shortcut properties. Execute PyroSim on the command line using the -JXmx argument. For example, pyrosim -JXmxm will request MB of memory.
To edit the PyroSim shortcut properties. Right-click on the PyroSim icon. Select the Shortcut tab. Edit the Target by adding a space and -JXmxm to the end of the Target. MPI processes communicate using network protocols that are disabled by default for accounts without passwords. In order to work, MPI must have access to a password-protected account. Users without passwords can overcome this problem in a couple ways:.
To instruct MPI to authenticate using an alternate account e. PyroSim attempts to validate the MPI configuration prior to running the simulation. If this validation fails, PyroSim assumes it was because of a password mismatch. If you know this is not the case e.
To diagnose this error, please run PyroSim in safe mode. The error output should appear at the bottom of the console window. To gather additional information about this error, you must run the MPI executable manually from the command prompt and observe the error output. To run the MPI executable manually, open a console window and issue the following commands:. The subsequent output should resemble the start of a successful FDS run; however, in this case it will probably contain error output.
If you are unable to resolve your issues from the suggestions in the table, please contact Thunderhead Engineering Email Support. The same site provides PyroSim user manuals and example problems. Please follow the examples to become familiar with the software. However, many conversions are possible and in many cases PyroSim can completely convert old input files to the new format.
Examples of previously unsupported version 4 features that can now be imported include solid-phase thermocouples and species. PyroSim first loads the data into a form designed to work with version 4 of FDS, then applies conversion logic to produce the corresponding data structures designed to work with version 5 of FDS.
When PyroSim encounters a record that cannot be automatically converted, a warning message is generated. Each warning contains information about the source of the problematic record and the action taken.
Some records are simply dropped and others are converted to default values. If a record is encountered that cannot be converted, but contained only default values and would not have affected the simulation, that record is dropped without issuing a warning.
Great care was taken to ensure that PyroSim generates these warnings whenever they contain important information, but not so often that they distract from important issues. When in question, PyroSim will err on the side of caution and generate a warning message. An example of this warning dialog is shown in Figure If no warning dialog appears, PyroSim was able to convert the input file without encountering any compatibility issues. The following items that can be set in the Simulation Parameters dialog of PyroSim are not supported in PyroSim and will be dropped.
All correctly specified sprinkler parameters are converted without warnings. If a sprinkler has been assigned a massless particle, however, that sprinkler will be assigned a particle with parameters from the make file, and a warning will be issued. For FDS 4 sprinkler make files, PyroSim has a robust built-in parser that can handle both simple and complex spray patterns.
The only requirement is that referenced make files must exist in the fds folder in the PyroSim install directory. If a file uses another make file, place it in this directory before importing or opening the file.
If there is a dry pipe delay greater than zero, PyroSim will create a single dry pipe with that delay and attach it to all the sprinklers in the model. Note, however, that in PyroSim the water pressure is specified per sprinkler rather than per pipe. Because of this, PyroSim will not convert the dry pipe pressure specified in the pipe record, and a warning will be issued.
To convert reaction data into a form useable by version 5 of FDS, PyroSim must reverse-engineer the fuel molecule composition based on stoichiometric coefficients. To accomplish this, PyroSim uses the equations given in section 4. The result is then checked to ensure that the total molecular weight is the same as the specified molecular weight.
If this check succeeds, no warning will be issued. If the test fails, PyroSim will issue a “Converted stoichiometry” warning and you must manually update reaction data to ensure accurate simulation results. Some surface properties are converted with no additional input or warnings, including surface names, colors, and textures. The different surface types, however, undergo more complicated conversions.
In PyroSim , there were a number of ways for thermally thin surfaces to either specify or omit these parameters. PyroSim will make a best-effort calculation of missing parameters. The default thickness for thermally thin surfaces is set to 1mm. In all cases where a default number has been assumed due to a missing parameter, a warning will be shown for the parameter.
PyroSim does not currently ship with a surface database, but users can still make their own. In fact, many different objects can now be put into a database including materials and surfaces, species, reactions, particles, and several more. As common surface descriptions and other of these object properties become available from reliable sources in a format supported by version 5 of FDS, PyroSim will again ship with a pre-filled database.
PyroSim first loads the data into a form designed to work with version 5 of FDS, then applies conversion logic to produce the corresponding data structures designed to work with version 6 of FDS. While most reaction data can be converted easily, FDS6 does add new requirements to specify a valid reaction.
Most notable is the requirement that a Fuel Species by specified by the user. This can be either a Predefined species, a User Defined species, or a Default species. This species can be used the same way any other species would be, but its fields cannot be edited.
All reactions defined in PyroSim or older automatically use the Default fuel type. It should also be noted that in FDS6 based PyroSim versions, it is required that a reaction be active in order to simulate a fire. Surfaces have undergone relatively few changes in from PyroSim to PyroSim However, a number of items are no longer supported in the new version.
In PyroSim , the interaction between particles and species has changed significantly. Most of these variables have since been moved to the species object. This species is then assigned under the Liquid tab of the PyroSim particle.
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Design integration using autodesk revit 2019 review question answers free
The cascaded view of projects, as shown in Figure With the help of multiple document environments, you can open multiple projects and then use the CutCopyand Paste tools from the Clipboard panel of the Modify type of element tab to transfer the required components from one project to http://replace.me/10789.txt. Autodesk Revit Architectural Command Reference. It жмите сюда be used to access various view-related tools. Read more.